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有机食品与普通食品营养品质与安全性差异研究

时间:2018-11-09 01:41:48  来源:蒋高明的博客  作者:虞晓凡 蒋高明

摘要:有机食品是指来自有机农业生产体系,根据有机农业相应的标准生产加工,并通过独立的有机食品认证机构认证的农副产品及其加工品。其主要特征是不使用人工合成物质,如农药、化肥、生长调节剂、饲料添加剂、基因工程产物等。但针对有机食品质量和食品安全问题,目前学术界依然存在争议,甚至有人认为有机食品与普通食品存在“三不出”(看不出、尝不出、测不出)问题。为揭示有机食品与普通食品营养品质与安全性差异,本文查阅了大量文献,结合我们的研究数据,从感官品质、营养价值和安全性三方面,介绍了国内外有机食品研究进展。总体来看,有机食品口感更好,农药残留量是普通食品的0-1/3;有机果蔬硝酸盐含量比普通果蔬减少50%-80%。此外,有机农产品干物质含量比普通食品高出约7%-20%。有机果蔬中的花青素、异黄酮、类胡萝卜素等具有抗癌、抗氧化的酚类化合物含量明显高于普通食品,维生素C含量更高,比普通果蔬高30%-68%。有机畜产品中含有更多对人体健康有益的多不饱和脂肪酸。在元素含量方面,有机农产品中大量元素P、Fe、Mg以及微量元素Zn、Cu、Cr含量更高。本研究发现,有机农业食品与普通食品相比存在明显的品质与安全差异,这一结论可为有机食品产业健康发展提供重要的理论依据。

关键词:有机食品;普通食品;品质;安全性

 

The advances oforganicfoods over conventional ones in nutritional contents and health security:common views and debates

YU Xiao-fan1,[2]JIANG Gao-ming1

(1.    Instituteof Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China

2.      Universityof Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China)

Abstract:Organic foods comefrom organic production system, following the organic  cultivationstandards and processingschedules. The main characteristics of the organicagriculture production system is not allowed to useartificial synthetic materials, such aspesticide, fertilizer, growth regulator, feed additives and gene engineeringproducts. However, for the organic food quality and healthsafety issues, the academic circles are stillcontroversial. Some people even think there is a"three cannot" problems for organicfoods, namely organic foods “cannot be distinguished ,tasted andmeasured” from common ones. In order to objectively reflect thenutritional quality and safety differences between organic and general foods,combing extensive published literatures with our own research data, we herereport some advances of organic foods from three aspects, e.g,sensory quality, nutritional value and safety .Overall, organic foods taste better. The percentage of organicfoods with pesticide residues was one-third in comparison to conventional ones.Nitrate content in organic fruit and vegetable was 50% of that ofnormal ones, even to the level one-fifth of the ordinary ones. In addition, thedry matter content of organic crops was about 7% -20% higher than ordinaryfoods. Organic foods have higher contents of anthocyanins, isoflavones,carotenoids and other phenolic compounds which have the anti-cancer andanti-oxidation effect. Higher vitamin C content by 30% -68% was found inorganic fruits and vegetables. Meanwhile, the organic animal products containmore beneficial polyunsaturated fatty acids. Elevated contents in majorelements such asP, Fe, Mg and trace elements such as Zn, Cu, and Cr wereverified in organic crops. The study showed that there are obvious differencesin quality and safety between foods originated from organic foods and ordinaryones. This conclusion can provide important theoretical basis for the healthydevelopment of organic food industry.

Keywords: organicfood; conventional food; nutritional quality; food security

    有机食品来自有机农业生产体系,即根据有机农业生产要求和相应的标准生产加工,并通过独立的有机食品认证机构认定的农副产品及其加工品[1]。中国国家质量监督检验检疫总局、国家标准化管理委员会联合发布的《有机产品国家标准(GB/T19630)》对有机食品生产过程基本要求是:1)不采用基因工程获得的生物及其产物;2)不使用化学合成的农药、化肥、生长调节剂、饲料添加剂等物质;3)遵循自然规律和生态学原理,采用一系列可持续发展的农业技术,维持持续稳定的农业生产体系

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